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RELIGION TERMS

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Jalous (Sikhism) - An outdoor procession led by the Guru Granth Sahib and five in the Khalsa brotherhood.
Janaka (Hinduism) - Ancient effective king and a holy sage too.
Janam sakhi (Sikhism) - The hagio-graphic biographies written down two or three generations after the death of Guru Nanak and it can refer to other Gurus too. It means 'birth evidences'.
Janardana (Hinduism) - Krishna (he who stirs up the people).
Janeu (Hinduism) - The sacred thread with which Hindu boys of the twice-born varnas (classes, castes) are invested at initiation. The ceremony is called upanayam. The Brahmin class do this at eight years, the Kshatriyas at eleven and Vaishyas at twelve (Shudras are once born and Dhalits do not count).
Jap (Sikhism) - Devout repetition of the divine name of God, or a scripture.
Japji (Sikhism) - Guru Arjan made it the opening hymn of the Sikh sacred writings because it is one of the most important hymns of Guru Nanak and should be said by Sikhs every morning.
Japu Sahib (Sikhism) - A composition of Guru Gobind Singh read by Sikhs as part of their daily prayers.
Jataka (Buddhism) - Birth story usually of the previous lives of Gautama Buddha.
Jesus (Christianity, religious humanism, Islam) - For most Western Christians Jesus is the Christ, which means for many he was God, pre-existent with the Father (Arians have regarded Jesus as divine but subordinate to the Father), born of a virgin, and who suffered and died (although he did not need to, but did for humankind), and was resurrected, who ascended to heaven and will come again to judge the living and the dead. He is the third Person of the Trinity (agreed 325 CE). Yet he was also fully human. This fully God and fully man definition (agreed 451 CE) presents itself as a riddle to others. For liberal Christians and others, the full humanity of Jesus compromises such uniqueness of divinity (just as for docetics and others, divinity compromised humanity), so that it is considered mythological and linguistic, and therefore any special divinity comes about because of the power of his teaching, dedication and closeness to God (however God is understood). It may be that he was resurrected, but this was because he became divine. This kind of viewpoint goes along with the fact that the full doctrine of the Trinity is not contained explicitly within the New Testament but is a later finding of the Church (and in some Churches later rejected the doctrine or have effectively modified it within theology). Or for some the resurrection was a subjective experience of the disciples and others, being a testimony to the power of his preaching and personality. For others still, the teaching and service stands as human and exemplary if humanly tragic, and he is a special human person. And then for others of a religious humanist position, it is the general moral and teaching position that is extracted, either away from or remaining caught within his supernatural end-time beliefs which were part of the immediate culture and which framed his internal mission and external expectations. For many he never claimed he was the Messiah, though increasingly he considered he had a central part to play in the coming of a Messiah, and certainly could never have mouthed the heresy of being the son of God, which would have made no sense. For Muslims, Jesus or Isha (peace be upon him) fits in a modified way (from the Christian view) into the supernatural. He is part of the revelatory process and of one of God's messengers, after Adam, Abraham and Moses, and like them his message was corrupted, and so Gabriel appeared again (as to Mary) and recited the Qur'an to Muhammad (peace be upon him). Note that for Muslims Jesus did not die on the cross but he was resurrected and is expected to return.
Jhatka Meat (Sikhism) - Meat of an animal that was killed quickly with one stroke. Guru Gobind Singh ordered that Sikhs cannot eat Muslim Halal meat because the animal was slowly bled to death.
Jihad (Islam) - The lesser jihad is against obstacles tothe divine order (may involve war) and the greater jihad is the drive against inner forces of being open to God.
jiva (Hinduism) - Living soul but one which is separate from Atman, the eternal Soul, Living being.
Jivan Mukti (Sikhism) - The Sikh stance that a person may achieve spiritual liberation during their lifetime and not just on their death.
jnana - Wisdom, spiritual knowing (jna is to know). Jananyoga is one of the yogas towards Moksha. It is the path of wisdom.

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